The Hindi language derives from Sanskrit and appears around 400 AD for the first time. The word Hindi is of Persian origin and has the literal meaning of “Indian”. It is a term that was often used by Persian ambassadors to identify any Indian language. From the 13th century, the word “Hindi” began to be used to name the present language in the regions of Delhi.
As for the origin of the language, we can say that it is a combination of influences from different ancient languages. Hindi is closely related to Urdu, has the same origin and refers to the same dialect. In terms of linguistic variety, Hindi is the fourth most widely spoken language in the world along with English, Mandarin, and Spanish.
Maa Santoshi Chalisa
Jai yug-yug ki Adi shakti, jag men prachalit hai nav bhakti
Adi, madhya aur avasana, teri gati vidhi koi na jana
Glory , all glory to you, O Primordial Power, worshipped in every age. Devotion to you is now a universal phenomenon. Without a beginning in the middle and as you are, your movements and activities are mysterious and incomprehensible.
Nirmal shradha men khush hoti, thode men santusht ho jati
Kali men nam dharyo Santoshi, agni tulya pratyaksha-vishekhi
Selfless and unblemished regard shown to you pleases you most; a trifling faith in you is enough to satisfy you. Although you are bright as fire and visible, you are called Santoshi in this Kali age.
Kala, gyan, bal, vidya, datri,tum sam saral sukhadan hindhatri
Sakal charachar tum se chalte, bhut-pret yamdut sinharte
To you we owe the arts, knowledge, strength and learning for there is no foster-mother as simple and comforting as you; and to you owes everything, moving and unmoving, its existence; but you are a big terror to ghosts, fiends and Death’s messengers.
Dushta dalan sanhar karni,Mata tum Brahmanda dharini
Sarasvati Lakshmi aur Kali,amit shakti ki khan nirali
While you kill and destroy the wicked, you sustain and uphold the universe. As Saraswati, Lakshmi and Kali you are a mysterious and unique reservoir of immeasurable power.
Tumhare sharan gahe jo koi,mano kamana purna hoi
Tum Ganesh ki man kanya,tumse dharti ho gai dhanya
Whosoever seeks your protection, finds all his desires fulfilled. You are the virgin mother of Ganesha and it is you who made the earth a supremely favoured place.
Riddhi, siddhi, hai tumhari mata,mangalmai vardana ke data
Brahma, Vishnu, Mahesh, Trimaya, us ka bat tujh men hai samaya
O Mother, you are the daughter of Riddhi and Siddhi, the two most munificent bestowers of propitious boons and embody the triple wisdom (extraordinary or supernatural power, shaktis or energies) of Brahma, Vishnu and Mahesha.
Sir par kanchan mukut suhata,sundar ratna sa muh dikhata
Madhur-manohar mukhda komal,pushpamal aur shyamal kuntal
On your head is a beautiful golden coronet studded with a cluster of splendid jewels; your soft, tender face possesses the beauty of mingled sweetness and charm aided by a beautiful wreath of flowers and a lock of black hair.
Alankar sohit hain ang mein,navya divya tan meru rang mein
Sundar vastra mein mala rakhti,darshak ke man vash mein karti
Your young divine body decked out with ornaments, looks elegant in its red ochre as does the wreath of your beautiful garments which bewitch the minds of all who behold them.
Ga trilakh da dhare do hatha chatur bhuji ko tekahu matha
Sanmukh amritbhari surahi,sath kamdhenu manchahi
Bow to the four-armed goddess who holds a lotus and a conch-shell in tow of her hands. In front of her is a flagon filled with nectar and beside her the much coveted cow of plenty.
Svarna kalash rahta hai age,bhakton ke saubhag ya ham jage
Tumhare bhaktibhav jo pave,ajar amar jag mein ho jave
Before you are kept a golden pitcher for blessing the devotees with good fortune. (The presence of the pitcher is a evidence of Santoshi’s readiness to bliss; the blessed urn is easily accessible for blessing whoever wins her favour) O Mother, age does not wither him nor Death kill the person whom you bless with disinterested love and devotion.
Namo namo, jagtaran hari,dukh daridra taro mahtari
Shukravar din ati anukula,Santoshi vrata mangalmula
I bow to you again and again, O deliverer of the world and entreat you to be so good a mother as to relieve me of my penury and misery. Fridays are all favorable to you for the observance of Santoshi’s Vrata-the vow kept in honor of you; it is the root of all blessings.
Bahuvidhi mat ki puja kar,Santoshi kl katha shravan kar
Gud aur chana prasad chadhave, nirhar ek jun manave
Let the devotee worship the Mother in as many ways as possible and listen to the story of her miraculous acts; let him offer her jaggery and non-fried gram and forgo one meal.
Savadhan us din yah rakkhe, bhul se khatta deve na chakhe
Nahin to matu kupitu ho jati,bansh sahit santan nasati
He should be particularly careful not to offer nor taste anything sour. Failure to observe this rule so enrages the Mother that she, in her fury,destroys the family of the transgressor.
Shukravar solah vrat rakhe,udya pan-utsah se manave
Phir to ichchha puran hoi,matu kripa se der na hoi
Continuously for sixteen Fridays should the vrata be observed and with great pomp and ceremony must it close. If these instructions are followed, every desire of the devotee will be fulfilled without delay.
Adbhut devi chamatkarini,pal men chinta pidha harini
Ja par kripa matu ki hoi,jit sake na usko koi
Endowed with miraculous powers, the wonderful goddess relieves her votaries of their anxieties and sufferings in trice. Whosoever is blessed by the compassionate mother becomes invincible.
Dhanvivek sukhshanti pradayini,is yug ki navpran vidhayini
Tum sam devi kou nahin, dekh liya mein Tribhuvan mahin
She doles out wealth, knowledge, happiness and peace to her supplicants for she is the harbinger of a new awakening (renewed vitality) in this age. I am convinced that there are nine in the three spheres comparable to her in might and compassion.
Dukh ati pai bahu bichari,pati viyog ki vah dukhyari
Nariyal-khopar pikar pani, bhus ki roti khai abhagini
Santoshi ka vrat jo kinhin,pati sahit vaibhav pa linha
A poor helpless housewife, bereaved of her husband was extremely distraught and was so unlucky that she had a coconut shell from which she drank water and eased her hunger by eating bread made of husks and chaff. When she observed the vow consecrated to Santoshi, she was blessed with prosperity and her husband was restored to her.
Pida, chinta katahu marta, ashtsiddhi navanidhi ki data
Santoshi upvas kare jo, sukh sampati ka bhog kare vo
O Mother, you are the gracious donor of the eight accomplishments and nine treasures; I supplicate you to relieve me of my worries and sufferings. He who observes fast (as a ceremonial rite to please Santoshi) enjoys both wealth and happiness.
Vahan vahan sab thaur samai,tumhari mahima kahi na jai
Man vanchhit var pavai kvari, paye suhag sadhva sannari
Your glory, which permeates all space, beggars description. Maidens if chaste and devoted to you, get husbands of their choice and married women if faithful and virtuous receive the boon of lasting coverture.
Sukh dhan jan sab manokamna, purna hogi satya janana
Path sava sau karai jo koi,mitai kasht sukh-sampati hoi.
Consider it an indubitable truth (law, principle) that devotion to Santoshi leads to the fulfillment of all desires and yields happiness, prosperity and a large family. He who repeats this hymn a hundred and twenty-five times is relieved of all his afflictions and is blessed with great felicity and riches.
Santoshi sankat haran,he chamatkar ki murti
Grah badha ko dur kar, karo kamna purti.
Santoshi, a veritable embodiment of miraculous feats, is the dispeller of all crises and obstructions caused by evil stars. I entreat her to fulfill my wishes.